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Hosiery Terms

ACELIN
Registered Name given to a Pretty Polly patented technique of incorporating Lycra into hosiery to give improved fit combined with excellent tights, stockings, hosiery appearance. An acronym for All Course Elastane In.

ACRYLIC
A generic term for a type of man-made fibre most similar to natural fibres with characteristics of softness and warmth.

AIR INTERMINGLED
System recently devised for combining elastane and textured nylon yarns to provide a type of covered yarn. The component yarns are mingled together by a jet of compressed air. The process is faster than traditional covering.

AUTOGUSSET
Term used to describe gusset inserted by semi automated equipment of the same name. Essentially an oval shaped gusset, usually made from nylon or cotton, and in some instances silk.

BACK PANEL GUSSET
Fabric panel sewn into the body section of the tights / pantyhose to increase their size and improve fit and comfort. Made from same the same material as the body and includes the waistband.

BICOMPONENT YARN (see Sideria)

BIKINI
Term relating to design of tights body section which is shaped to follow the briefline and give a more flattering appearance.

BOARDING
Process applied to hosiery to improve final presentation. Usually carried out after dyeing when tights are pulled over plastic forms (originally made of wood) and subject to pressure and steam. Temperatures achievedis sufficient to affect the thermoplastic nature of the yarn used and set the shape of the former into the garment.

COMFORT TOP
When applied to a knee high this is a form of elastication designed to spread the elastic over a deeper portion of the leg and avoid discomfort and excessive marking of the leg.

COMPRESSION VALUE
The number assigned to compression tights / pantyhose, stockings and socks to indicate it comprehensive strength at the ankle. It is actually a value in millimetres of mercury (the blood pressure unit) measured on a H.A.T.R.A. pressure tester. The lower the number the lighter the compression.

CONTROL TOP
Tights / pantyhose produced with body section containing sufficient Lycra to provide comprehensive control. Body section is opaque in appearance.

COTTON GUSSET
Material sometimes used in the gusset of tights. Although often called cotton the fabric invariably has a cotton face on a nylon ground. Hence cotton surface is in contact with the body, while the nylon takes up dye to provide uniform external appearance.

CYCLE SHORTS
Description sometimes given to long line control brief pantyhose.

DENIER
It is defined as the weight in grams of 9000 meters of yarn. It relates to the fineness of the yarn which in turn relates to the sheerness of the fabric produced. The finer the yarn the lower the denier, the sheerer the hosiery. eg: 10 Denier is sheerer that 15 denier.

DENIER APPEARANCE
Certain yarns and some knit constructions produce tights, stockings, hosiery which does not correlate with true denier of the yarn(s). In these cases the word appearance is often used. The rating therefore becomes a subjective assessment.

DIAMOND GUSSET
Diamond shaped piece of fabric sewn into the crotch on tights.

FIBRE CONTENT
The legal declaration of the composition of the garment. Basic pantyhose in nylon yarns are described as 100% nylon excluding waistband. This is because elastan used in the waistband is classed as trimming and is not representative of the total garment construction and therefore does not need to be declared.

FINGERBAND
A reinforced area below the waistband (often on sheer through styles) of pantyhose, designed to confer added strength in the area likely to be stressed during the fitting process. The band reduces the chance of the wearer's fingers damaging the hosiery during fitting.

FISHNET
An open net design structure.

GRADUATED COMPRESSION
A prime requirement for correctly made support (or compression) stockings, tights / pantyhose and socks is that the level of compression varies along the length of the leg. The maximum value is that the ankle with a progressive reduction through calf to thigh. This is of medical importance in promoting blood flow back to the heart.

GUSSET
Piece of fabric sewn into the body section of the tights to improve the levels of fit, comfort and durability. Related: DIAMOND GUSSET

HOLD UPS
Self supporting stockings. Originally defined by Pretty Polly and never registered, it is now regarded as the generic name for stockings with an elasticated band that stay up without the use of a suspender or garter belt.

HOSIERY
Defined as knitted covering for the feet and legs. A general term covering tights, pantyhose, stockings and socks.

KITE GUSSET
A type of gusset sewn into the body section of the pantyhose to give greater extensibility to fit the larger hip sizes.

LADDER
A failure in the knitted fabric construction. A broken yarn or mis-formed stitch causes the loop to collapse into straight lengths of yarn running in a vertical line up and or down the garment.

LYCRA
Lycra is Du Pont's registered trade mark for elastane fibre. It is a man-made fibre that can be produced in a range of deniers and different types. The chief characteristic of Lycra is it's ability to stretch and recover totally. By controlling the tension of the Lycra in knitting, the strength of it's elasticity can be controlled. Lycra can be used in it's BARE form (no covering). This is the most economical, but is not suited to all applications. Alternatively, Lycra can be covered. Single Covered or Double Covered. Covering increases thickness and changes the handle characteristics of the yarn. It also adds to the yarns durability and costs. It is also possible to mix Nylon and Lycra together by air jet, as an alternative to covering, these are know as air intermingled yarns and are widely used in support stockings, tights / pantyhose and socks. Wearers will experience the exceptional comfort of Lycra 3D hosiery and the clear, even colour coverage of the legwear. The difference is apparent the moment the product is taken out of the pack - but with a unique softness and silkiness.

Lycra containing yarns are incorporated into hosiery in a variety of ways:

MICROFIBRE
A yarn made up from large numbers of the fine filaments to produce exceptionally soft characteristics.

MICROMESH
Type of knit construction incorporating tuck stitches usually in diagonal configuration to give improved durability characteristics.

NYLON
Nylon is a ployamide yarn. It is a fibre whose basic ingredients originate from the petrol chemical industry. Nylon is naturally bright but can also be delustred to give a duller appearance, either Semi Dull or Fully Dull. It can also be produced in differing cross-sections which give different handles and appearances.

ONE PIECE
Tights knitted as a complete garment to eliminate or reduce the seaming process required using traditional methods

OPAQUE
Garment made from higher denier yarns to give opacity

PLAIN KNIT
A weft knitted fabric in which all the loops are intermeshed in one direction. It is often referred to as smooth knit because of the uniform surface of this fabric.

POLAMIDE
The chemical name given to a class of man made fibres. An alternative name for Nylon.

REINFORCED
The term used to describe sections of a garment that have been strengthened to provide additional durability.

SEMI BOARDED
A process in the manufacturing sequence that improves the presentation of the finished product. The dye garment is processed on semi automated equipment in which the garment is pulled over a former and subjected to heat. This removes creasing and makes the hosiery more suitable for packaging.

SEMI OPAQUE
A description given to hosiery styles which have evolved into position between sheer and opaque styles. The denier appearance range 30 - 45 equates to this category.

SANDAL TOE
Sheer tow ideal for wearing with open toe shoes.

SHADOW TOE
A description given to a type of reinforcement to the fabric at the toe. It offers a less severe difference in fabric density to the full reinforced tow, but still offers some durability in this high stress area.

SHEEN
Surface appearance demonstrating a slight lustre or indescence.

SHEER
A widely used commonly used as a hosiery descriptive

SIDERIA
The tradename of the bicomponent yarn produced by Kanebo in Japan used in Sheer Light Style.

SILICONE TOP
Modern hold ups have an elastic band sewn to the top which has silicone on its inner surface. The stocking stays in position by a combination of elasticity (in the band) and the friction of the silicone against the skin. The performance of the silicone is ruined by contact with the body lotion or talc which reduces the friction and allows the garment to fall down.

TACTEL
Tradename for a range of nylon yarns. The essential characteristic is softness of handle created by their low denier per filament make up.

TEXTURED / TEXTURIZED
A stage in the processing of certain nylon yarns. The raw nylon yarn is subjected to a combined process of twisting and heating to create a yarn with greater bulk and properties of stretch and recovery. The texturising process converts a flat filament, to a textured yarn with high bulk. Basic nylon styles such as 15 denier smooth knit etc, are made with extruded textured yarns.

THREAD
Occurs when a hosiery fabric comes into contact with a rough object or surface. Either individual filaments in the yarn or in serve case the whole yarn can be pulled away from the surface of the knitted fabric.

TORQUE
A term applied to a type of nylon yarn which has been through processing to introduce a high level of twist. This creates a yarn with some recovery but without bulk associated with texturised yarns. The fabrics made from Torque yarns have excellent sheerness for a given denier and bright surface appearance. However the overall cling properties in wear are limited and multiple sizes are needed to get a good fit.

U SEAM
A description given to the simplest possible body seam to produce a pair of tights. The letter U simply describes the shape of the seam.

UNDER WELT / Secondary Welt
The band of fabric sometimes knitted beneath the double fabric of the stocking top is called the under welt. Can also be introduced as a decorative feature especially if printed.

VOILE
Word adopted by the knitting industry from the weaving industry. Related: Torque

WELT
As a term specific to stockings it describes the double thickness at the stocking top used to take the suspender button/clasp.

ZOKKI
Term originating from Japanese hosiery industry, where it describes a hosiery style made with covered elastane on every course.

 

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